San Jose, lovingly referred to as the Capital of Silicon Valley, is a city that defies expectations. Located in the heart of California, San Jose marries the charm of a bustling metropolis with the serene appeal of suburban tranquillity. With its year-round pleasant climate, innovative spirit, and cultural vibrancy, San Jose offers a colorful panorama of experiences.
Known globally as the epicenter of technological innovation, San Jose is more than just a tech hub. Its rich tapestry of cultures, awe-inspiring landmarks, diverse culinary scene, and dynamic arts and entertainment avenues contribute to its unique identity. From being home to the largest collection of Egyptian artifacts in western North America to having its very own urban wine trail, the city’s persona is as multifaceted as it is captivating. San Jose’s impact on the global scene, particularly in the tech sector, is monumental and transformative.
In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into the heart of San Jose, revealing the ten facets that define its vibrant character. Whether it’s the buzzing energy of Silicon Valley, the historical intrigue of the Winchester Mystery House, the culinary delights offered by a myriad of food trucks, or the creative expressions at the city’s numerous museums and art galleries, each aspect is a chapter in the ever-unfolding story of San Jose.
Join us as we journey through these elements, gaining insights into what makes San Jose the vibrant, dynamic, and unique city it is today.
The Capital of Silicon Valley
Situated in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area, San Jose is widely recognized as the Capital of Silicon Valley, the global epicenter of technology, innovation, and digital prowess. This high-tech industry moniker isn’t merely lip service, but a testament to the city’s incredible contribution to the tech world.
The region’s journey towards technological domination began in the late 1950s when William Shockley established Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Mountain View. This was followed by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, former Shockley employees, launching Intel in Santa Clara, another Silicon Valley city. The region experienced a massive tech boom in the 1980s and 1990s, with the rise of tech giants like Apple, Google, and Facebook.
San Jose, the most populous city in Silicon Valley, is home to numerous tech behemoths, including Adobe, eBay, and Cisco Systems. Each day, new startups are born in the city, further strengthening its reputation as a global tech hub. This innovative spirit is palpable across the city, whether it’s in the state-of-the-art office buildings, the trendy co-working spaces brimming with aspiring entrepreneurs, or the bustling tech expos and trade shows.
Beyond the corporate landscape, the influence of the tech industry can be seen in the city’s infrastructure, with the San Jose International Airport even featuring a tech museum. The city also hosts the annual Silicon Valley Comic Con, which combines the worlds of pop culture and technology, perfectly embodying San Jose’s unique cultural fabric.
The city’s position as the Capital of Silicon Valley has also given rise to a host of services and institutions that support the tech industry. This includes leading universities and research institutions, such as San Jose State University and Silicon Valley University, which supply a steady stream of top-tier talent to the tech industry.
However, it’s not all work and no play in San Jose. The city’s tech industry also fuels a vibrant social scene with an array of nightlife options, shopping destinations, and dining hotspots catering to its diverse workforce. This balance between cutting-edge innovation and quality of life makes San Jose a truly unique destination, offering a glimpse into a future shaped by technology.
San Jose’s role as the Capital of Silicon Valley is certainly a significant part of its identity, and it’s impossible to ignore the tech industry’s influence. However, as we will see, San Jose is not a one-note city – it offers a diversity of experiences that extends well beyond the tech scene.
San Jose is a melting pot of cultures, a place where the cross-pollination of ideas and traditions from around the globe has created a vibrant, diverse city. From the rhythm of music wafting from a Vietnamese coffee shop to the aroma of tamales in the Mexican mercado, San Jose showcases its cultural diversity at every turn.
Founded as El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe in 1777, San Jose was the first civilian town in the Spanish colony of Nueva California. Over the centuries, the city has been enriched by successive waves of immigrants, each bringing their unique cultural heritage. The influence of the city’s Mexican roots can still be seen and felt today, particularly in the colorful celebrations of Cinco de Mayo and the Day of the Dead.
Since the 1970s, San Jose has also become home to one of the largest Vietnamese communities outside Vietnam, whose influence is especially notable in the city’s food scene. The city’s sprawling Vietnamese markets, such as Grand Century Mall and Vietnam Town, are filled with restaurants, bakeries, and shops selling everything from pho to banh mi.
Not to be overlooked is the city’s significant Filipino population, who celebrate their culture through events like the Pista Sa Nayon Festival, a summer celebration featuring Filipino music, dance, and food. In fact, San Jose is one of the few cities in the United States to have a dedicated Filipino cultural center, the Filipino American Community of Silicon Valley.
San Jose is not just culturally diverse in terms of ethnicity but also in its inclusive attitude towards all forms of diversity. The city is known for its strong LGBTQ+ community, with the Billy DeFrank LGBTQ+ Community Center serving as a vital hub for the community since the 1980s. Each August, the city is awash with color during the Silicon Valley Pride parade and festival.
This celebration of diversity extends to the city’s art scene, which features a multitude of cultural expressions, from traditional Asian performances at the annual Tet Festival to the eclectic works on display at the San Jose Museum of Art. Not to be missed is the San Jose Jazz Summer Fest, which brings together a diverse range of music styles from across the globe.
In essence, San Jose’s cultural diversity is an integral part of its charm. It is a city that not only welcomes diversity but celebrates it, creating a rich, inclusive tapestry that is a testament to the strength and vibrancy of its communities. It’s a place where traditions from across the world intermingle and thrive, giving the city a unique cultural dynamism that sets it apart from other cities.
Winchester Mystery House
Within the heart of San Jose lies a fascinating architectural anomaly that has intrigued locals and tourists alike for over a century – the Winchester Mystery House. This sprawling Queen Anne Style Victorian mansion, with its labyrinth of rooms, mysterious staircases leading nowhere, and secret passages, is an enigma wrapped in a riddle, shrouded in the lore and legend of its eccentric owner, Sarah Winchester.
Sarah was the widow of William Wirt Winchester, heir to the vast fortune of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Plagued by the untimely deaths of her husband and daughter, Sarah purportedly sought the counsel of a medium. As the story goes, the medium warned Sarah that she was being haunted by the spirits of those killed by Winchester rifles and advised her to move out West and construct a house to appease these restless spirits.
The result was the Winchester Mystery House, a monument to Sarah’s superstitions and a testament to her unconventional taste. Construction of the house began in 1884 and continued incessantly for 38 years until Sarah’s death in 1922. Workers labored round the clock, creating a maze-like structure that eventually sprawled across six acres, with approximately 160 rooms, including 40 bedrooms, 2 ballrooms, 47 fireplaces, and over 10,000 panes of glass.
One of the house’s most fascinating features is the number of architectural oddities. Doors open onto walls, staircases lead to ceilings, cabinets open into vast empty rooms, and a host of other quirks that defy reason. The house even includes a Séance Room, where Sarah supposedly communicated with the spirits guiding her continuous construction. These anomalies, some believe, were designed to confuse the vengeful spirits haunting her.
Touring the Winchester House is like stepping into a dream—or perhaps a nightmare—where logic and predictability are suspended. Each room and corridor reveals a new oddity or an intricate detail that adds to the overall bewilderment. Even the beautifully manicured gardens surrounding the house have a sense of the uncanny, with statues staring blankly and fountains that murmur amidst the silence.
However, the Winchester Mystery House isn’t just a curiosity for those with a taste for the supernatural. It’s also an architectural marvel, filled with stunning art glass windows, ornate woodwork, and extravagant furnishings. The sheer scale of the mansion and the intricacy of its design make it a masterpiece in its own right.
The Winchester Mystery House remains one of San Jose’s most popular attractions. It’s a strange and beautiful monument to one woman’s eccentricity, a labyrinthine enigma that continues to fascinate and bewilder. Whether you’re drawn to the eerie tales of its spectral inhabitants or the architectural oddities scattered throughout the mansion, a visit to the Winchester Mystery House is a journey into the bizarre, the inexplicable, and the truly unique.
Tech Museum of Innovation
At the heart of the Capital of Silicon Valley, it’s no surprise that San Jose boasts a world-renowned tech museum dedicated to inspiring the innovators of tomorrow. The Tech Museum of Innovation, also known as The Tech Interactive, stands as a shining beacon of San Jose’s commitment to education, creativity, and forward-thinking.
The Tech Interactive is a family-friendly science and technology center with interactive exhibits designed to inspire curiosity and learning in visitors of all ages. It’s not just about observing; it’s about engaging. At The Tech, you are not a passive observer but an active participant. The museum invites you to roll up your sleeves, engage your senses, and dive into the world of science and technology.
Covering approximately 132,000 square feet in the heart of downtown San Jose, The Tech consists of several themed galleries filled with interactive exhibits. From exploring the farthest reaches of outer space in the Virtual Space Exploration exhibit to understanding the marvels of the human body in the BioDesign Studio, the museum offers a broad spectrum of learning experiences.
One of the museum’s most popular exhibits is the Tech for Global Good. This program celebrates innovators who are using technology to address pressing global problems. Each year, The Tech recognizes laureates who have made significant contributions in their fields and created solutions to improve lives and protect our planet. These inspiring stories are brought to life through exhibits, student learning programs, and the annual Tech for Global Good Celebration.
The Social Robots area is a crowd favorite, where you can design and build your own robot. This exhibit exemplifies the essence of The Tech Interactive—learning through doing. It’s a hands-on, engaging experience that demystifies technology and empowers individuals to realize that they, too, can be creators and innovators.
Education is at the heart of The Tech Interactive’s mission. Through partnerships with schools and educators, the museum offers a variety of programs designed to promote Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) learning. From labs and workshops to professional development opportunities for teachers, The Tech is dedicated to inspiring and cultivating the next generation of innovators.
As you leave The Tech Interactive, one message resonates: technology is not just about gadgets and gizmos—it’s about people. It’s about how we can harness our collective creativity and ingenuity to improve our world. Whether you’re a tech enthusiast, a curious explorer, or a budding innovator, a visit to The Tech Interactive is a memorable journey through the transformative power of technology.
In a city recognized globally for its contribution to technology and innovation, The Tech Interactive is an embodiment of San Jose’s spirit—a testament to its constant quest for knowledge, its unwavering belief in human potential, and its dedication to making the world a better place through technology.
Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum
Journey back in time and across the globe without leaving San Jose at the remarkable Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum. Nestled in the city’s Rose Garden neighborhood, this architectural gem is an ode to ancient Egypt, a time capsule that whisks visitors away to a civilization steeped in mystery and wonder.
The museum, which is the largest of its kind in western North America, is part of the Rosicrucian Park. This 5-acre estate, managed by the Rosicrucian Order, is a veritable sanctuary within the city that aims to provide an environment conducive to the pursuit of wisdom, self-improvement, and spiritual discovery.
The museum itself is an architectural marvel, designed to resemble the Temple of Amon at Karnak. It houses the largest collection of authentic ancient Egyptian artifacts on display in Western North America. With over 4,000 artifacts spanning several dynasties, the museum offers a comprehensive insight into ancient Egyptian culture and history.
As you walk through the exhibit halls, you encounter a diverse array of objects, from intricately carved stone sarcophagi and delicate ushabti figurines to grand statues of gods and pharaohs. The museum’s crown jewel is perhaps its collection of human and animal mummies, one of the largest on the West Coast.
Each exhibit within the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum is designed to tell a story—about the people who crafted these items, the beliefs that influenced their designs, and the everyday lives they were part of. Whether it’s understanding the ancient Egyptians’ view of life after death or their advancements in medicine, the museum’s collections offer a tangible connection to this ancient civilization.
One of the museum’s most interactive experiences is the replica tomb of an 18th Dynasty noble, based on the tomb of Thutmose III’s vizier, Userhat. As you traverse the dimly lit corridors of the replica tomb, you gain a first-hand perspective of what an actual Egyptian tomb feels like. The inscriptions, reliefs, and artifacts within the tomb provide a deeper understanding of burial customs and the importance of the afterlife in ancient Egyptian culture.
The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum also places a significant emphasis on education. It offers a variety of educational programs and workshops for both students and adults. These programs aim to foster a better understanding and appreciation of ancient Egyptian culture, history, and civilization.
Immersive, informative, and thought-provoking, the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum is more than just a museum—it’s a bridge that connects the present to the past, providing visitors with a unique opportunity to explore and understand a civilization that, though long gone, continues to fascinate and inspire.
San Jose’s Food Scene
In the heart of Silicon Valley, nestled among tech giants and innovative startups, there’s a different kind of innovation happening—on plates, in glasses, and within the bustling kitchens of San Jose’s vibrant food scene. A culinary canvas painted with bold, diverse flavors, the city’s gastronomy tells a delectable story of its cultural diversity and creative spirit.
San Jose’s food scene is a global culinary tour. Thanks to the city’s rich cultural diversity, you can travel the world, one dish at a time. Whether you’re hankering for Vietnamese pho in the Little Saigon district, savoring homemade Italian pasta in Little Italy, relishing in the bold flavors of Mexican cuisine in East San Jose, or tucking into sushi rolls in Japantown, there’s a world of taste to explore.
Not to be overshadowed by its international cuisine, the city’s Californian fare is also a standout. Farmers’ markets dot the city, bursting with the bounty of California’s farmland. These markets feed into the farm-to-table movement, a culinary philosophy embraced by many San Jose restaurants. These establishments prioritize fresh, local, and seasonal ingredients, offering a taste of California in every bite.
One such place is Adega, a restaurant that not only put San Jose’s food scene on the map but also gave it a Michelin star. Specializing in Portuguese cuisine, Adega combines traditional recipes with innovative culinary techniques to create dishes that are both familiar and fresh. With an equally impressive wine list featuring Portuguese wines, it’s no wonder Adega is a star of San Jose’s culinary scene.
San Jose’s dining scene also extends to the streets, with food trucks and pop-up eateries providing casual and creative dining options. Moveable Feast, a recurring food truck gathering, offers a smorgasbord of flavors from various culinary traditions. These events turn dining into a social experience, where food is shared, stories are told, and communities are formed.
While food is a cornerstone of San Jose’s culinary scene, beverages are by no means an afterthought. The city’s craft beer scene is flourishing, with breweries like Hermitage Brewing Company and Strike Brewing Co. offering inventive brews. Additionally, San Jose’s proximity to California’s wine country means that wine bars and tasting rooms are aplenty, offering sips of the region’s finest vintages.
Culinary innovation extends to dessert too. Treatbot, a karaoke-equipped ice cream truck, serves up locally made, inventive ice cream flavors like The 408 (made from caramel, Oreo, and fudge). CREAM, meanwhile, offers ice cream sandwiches using freshly baked cookies and gourmet ice cream.
San Jose’s food scene is a reflection of the city itself—diverse, vibrant, and constantly innovating. It’s a culinary landscape where traditions from around the globe meld, creating a gastronomic experience that, much like the city, is a melting pot of cultures and flavors. As you navigate the streets of San Jose, let your taste buds lead the way. You’re in for a delicious journey.
Brimming with vibrant green spaces, scenic trails, and delightful year-round weather, San Jose is a veritable playground for outdoor enthusiasts. With a cornucopia of recreational activities and natural beauty at every turn, it’s no wonder that residents and visitors alike regularly seize the opportunity to explore the city’s captivating outdoors.
One can hardly talk about outdoor activities in San Jose without mentioning the city’s biking culture. San Jose is a haven for cyclists of all levels with its extensive network of bike lanes and trails. The Los Gatos Creek Trail, in particular, is a local favorite, providing cyclists with a scenic route that winds through multiple parks and offers an abundance of wildlife viewing opportunities.
For those who prefer a leisurely stroll or a heart-pumping hike, San Jose’s parks offer myriad trails to explore. Alum Rock Park, the oldest municipal park in California, boasts over 720 acres of rugged beauty. With over 13 miles of trails, picnic areas, a variety of flora and fauna, and even mineral springs, it’s a perfect spot for a family day out or a solo adventure.
Adjacent to the city, you’ll find the sprawling Santa Clara Valley, a place rich in natural beauty and agricultural heritage. Here, numerous U-pick farms offer visitors the chance to roll up their sleeves and harvest their own fruits and vegetables—a delightful, hands-on way to appreciate the region’s bountiful produce.
San Jose’s favorable climate and clear skies also make it an ideal location for golfers. With several top-notch golf courses such as the Cinnabar Hills Golf Club and the Santa Teresa Golf Club, golf enthusiasts can tee off surrounded by stunning landscapes and picturesque vistas.
Not just confined to the land, San Jose’s outdoor activities extend to its waterways. The city’s reservoirs, like the Almaden Reservoir and Lake Cunningham, offer opportunities for fishing, boating, and even windsurfing. The latter is also home to the Raging Waters water park, where you can cool off with thrilling slides and wave pools.
Wildlife observation is another engaging outdoor activity in San Jose. The Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge is a vast oasis for many migratory birds, mammals, and fish. A visit here allows for tranquil bird watching, photography, and a chance to learn more about the local ecosystem.
Last but not least, San Jose’s location in the heart of Silicon Valley doesn’t mean it’s all urban sprawl. Far from it. The city is ringed by several mountain ranges, including the Santa Cruz Mountains and the Diablo Range, offering countless opportunities for camping, hiking, and nature walks. These locations provide stunning panoramic views of the cityscape below—an unforgettable sight, especially at sunrise or sunset.
San Jose truly offers outdoor activities for every age and interest, emphasizing its commitment to outdoor living and environmental appreciation. Whether you’re a thrill-seeker, a nature lover, or simply someone looking for a leisurely day under the California sun, San Jose has got you covered.
San Jose’s sports scene is as dynamic and diverse as the city itself, offering an exciting blend of professional sports and collegiate athletics that makes the city a magnet for sports enthusiasts. Home to several major league teams and boasting top-notch sports facilities, San Jose is a place where you can witness high-stakes action, thrilling rivalries, and passionate fandom.
At the heart of San Jose’s sports landscape is the San Jose Sharks, the city’s beloved National Hockey League team. The Sharks play their home games at the SAP Center, affectionately known as the “Shark Tank.” On game nights, the Shark Tank comes alive with deafening cheers, as fans adorned in teal and black rally behind their team, creating an electrifying atmosphere that exemplifies the city’s fervor for ice hockey.
In the realm of soccer, the San Jose Earthquakes have left an indelible mark. As one of the ten charter members of Major League Soccer, the Earthquakes have a storied history that includes multiple MLS Cup wins. The Earthquakes’ home ground, PayPal Park, is renowned for offering an intimate viewing experience, with its close-to-the-field seating and raucous supporters’ section, fostering a palpable connection between the fans and the team.
San Jose also hosts the San Jose Giants, a minor league baseball team affiliated with the San Francisco Giants. Playing in the historic Excite Ballpark, the San Jose Giants offer a more relaxed and family-friendly sports outing. Here, fans can enjoy the quintessential American pastime in a charming and nostalgic setting while also spotting potential future Major League stars.
The sports scene in San Jose isn’t limited to professional leagues. The city also supports a robust college sports scene, centered around San Jose State University. The SJSU Spartans compete in a variety of sports, from football and basketball to gymnastics and golf, fostering a lively collegiate sports culture that adds another layer of excitement to San Jose’s sports milieu.
For motorsports fans, the nearby Sonoma Raceway and Laguna Seca Raceway offer thrilling car and motorcycle races, including NASCAR and IndyCar events. These venues serve up high-octane excitement and are must-visit destinations for any motorsports enthusiast.
San Jose also hosts a variety of sporting events, such as the annual Silicon Valley Turkey Trot, one of the largest timed Thanksgiving races in the U.S., and the Amgen Tour of California, a professional cycling road race that often courses through the city. These events engage the local community and contribute to the city’s vibrant sporting culture.
In San Jose, the love for sports is woven into the city’s fabric. Whether it’s hockey, soccer, baseball, or college sports, the city’s teams have etched their impact on the hearts of their fans and the annals of their respective sports, making San Jose a compelling destination for any sports aficionado.
Music and Arts
San Jose’s music and arts scene is a bustling ecosystem of creativity and cultural exchange, embodying the city’s spirit of innovation and diversity. From high-brow art exhibitions and avant-garde theatre to pulsating live music and vibrant street art, the city’s creative landscape is teeming with experiences that stimulate the senses and provoke thought.
San Jose’s rich tapestry of music genres is best experienced through its multitude of venues and events. The San Jose Jazz Summer Fest is an annual staple that draws jazz lovers from all corners of the world. This three-day extravaganza showcases an eclectic lineup of jazz, blues, Latin, R&B, and more, transforming the city into a vibrant musical playground. Venues like The Ritz and San Jose Civic host a wide array of concerts, from indie rock bands to big-name artists, catering to diverse musical tastes.
Opera San Jose, a professional opera company, has been serenading audiences with world-class performances since 1984. Performing at the beautiful California Theatre, Opera San Jose adds a touch of classical elegance to the city’s music scene. San Jose’s Symphony Silicon Valley, the only fully professional symphony in the South Bay, fills the air with the timeless beauty of classical music, offering a sublime retreat from the bustle of city life.
San Jose’s commitment to the arts is evident in its wealth of galleries and museums. The San Jose Museum of Art, housed in a building that’s a work of art in itself, is a beacon of contemporary and modern art, featuring a robust collection of works that reflect the city’s multicultural fabric. The Institute of Contemporary Art, another gem, is a non-profit gallery that champions the work of emerging artists and pushes the boundaries of contemporary art.
The city’s performing arts scene is a dynamic blend of traditional and cutting-edge theatre. The San Jose Stage Company, the city’s longest-running professional theatre company, delivers provocative plays that reflect the human condition, while the City Lights Theater Company is known for its innovative and intimate productions. The Mexican Heritage Plaza, a cultural hub in the heart of San Jose’s Latino community, celebrates the richness of Latino arts through various programs and events.
San Jose’s urban landscape is also a canvas for street artists who infuse the city’s streets and alleys with color and character. The city’s public art program supports the creation of artworks throughout the city, ranging from awe-inspiring murals to intriguing sculptures, reflecting San Jose’s commitment to enhancing its urban environment through art.
The music and arts scene in San Jose is a testament to the city’s creative vitality. It mirrors the city’s diverse community, fosters a sense of unity, and serves as a platform for artists to express their creativity. It’s a dynamic world of sight and sound that invites locals and visitors alike to delve in and discover.
A visit to San Jose is incomplete without experiencing the vibrant urban oasis that is Santana Row. Often referred to as the “Rodeo Drive of Silicon Valley”, this upscale shopping, dining, and entertainment complex represents the city’s flair for elegance and sophistication. It beautifully amalgamates the thrill of shopping, the joy of food, the charisma of fashion, and the delight of entertainment into one dynamic destination.
As you walk along the lushly landscaped Santana Row, the first thing that strikes you is the architectural elegance that the place exudes. The European-inspired boulevard lined with palm trees and punctuated with public art installations and water fountains lends an air of international glamour to the area. The meticulous design of the complex, complete with outdoor seating areas and meticulously maintained flower beds, invites visitors to linger and soak in the ambiance.
Santana Row is a shopping paradise with over 70 upscale boutiques and brand name stores. These include everything from high-end designer labels like Gucci and Kate Spade to popular retail favorites like H&M and Amazon Books. Whether you’re in search of the latest fashion trends, unique home furnishings, or simply wish to indulge in some retail therapy, Santana Row has it all.
The dining scene at Santana Row is as eclectic as it is exciting. With over 20 restaurants and cafes, it offers a culinary world tour with cuisines ranging from Italian, French, and American to Japanese, Mexican, and more. Whether you crave a gourmet meal at a fine-dining establishment like LB Steak, want to enjoy a casual lunch at Pizza Antica, or savor artisanal pastries at Cocola Bakery, there’s something to satisfy every palate.
Santana Row also sets the stage for an exciting range of entertainment options. The row houses CineArts, a movie theater that offers a unique mix of Hollywood blockbusters and indie films. There are regular events like outdoor yoga classes, wine tastings, farmers’ markets, and seasonal celebrations, ensuring that there’s always something happening.
But Santana Row is more than just a destination for shopping, dining, and entertainment. It’s also a residential and commercial hub with luxury apartments and offices, creating a true live-work-play environment. The European-style layout with its pedestrian-friendly design encourages a community atmosphere where residents can live, work, and play all within a few city blocks.
Above all, what sets Santana Row apart is its unique vibe – a cosmopolitan, vibrant, and lively ambiance that keeps visitors coming back. It’s not just a place but a lifestyle experience, capturing the essence of San Jose’s luxurious side. Whether you’re a shopaholic, foodie, culture enthusiast, or simply a city lover, Santana Row is a destination that can’t be missed on a trip to San Jose.